|"I won't allow it! I'll leave with them. You won't have to worry about the pups after that! But if you try to hurt them you will have to go through me!"|
|— Martha to Alpha in Darkness Falls, page 248|
| Forests Beyond|
Leashed Dog, Leashed Pack, Wild Pack
| Species |
|Names|| Leashed Dog: Martha |
Patrol Dog: Martha
|Family|| Longpaws (formerly) |
Foster Daughter: Storm
Foster Sons: Fang,Wiggle
| Status|| Deceased (Succumbed to wounds from battle )|
|Living||The Empty City, A Hidden Enemy, Darkness Falls, The Broken Path, The Endless Lake, Storm of Dogs|
|Dead||Storm of Dogs, A Pack Divided|
Martha is a massive, sleek, large and tall, burly, thick-furred black female Newfoundland with large webbed paws. She has a broad, shaggy head, a bushy, thick, feathery tail, sturdy legs, a large, jowly, dark face, and dark eyes.
Martha has a caring, loving, kind, loyal and protective personality
Martha is a Leashed Dog who became friends with Mickey, Daisy, Sunshine, Alfie, Bruno, and Bella.
- When Lucky is in the mall, being chased by a hungry pack of foxes, a group of dogs help fend off the foxes, letting Lucky keep the meat that Old Hunter gave him.
- After he recognizes one of the dogs, Lucky and Bella have a happy reunion, and she introduces him to the rest of her pack, the Leashed Dog, which consist of Bella, Martha, Sunshine, Bruno, and Daisy
- Coming Soon
- Martha comes up with an idea to give the River-Dog a gift. She also fights alongside her Leashed Pack against the Wild Pack for the rights of their hunting grounds and clean water.
- Once the fight clears, the Leashed Dogs join the Wild Lack as one. After Lucky and Mickey find Grunt, Lick, and Wiggle, Martha became the foster mother of them. She helps Lucky keep them in the Wild Pack, even though no one would ever trust a Fierce Dog in the pack, due to their reputation of being unmerciful savages.
- Coming Soon
- Coming Soon
- Martha goes with Lucky on his rescue party to rescue Fiery from the longpaws. When they encounter Fierce Dogs on the Endless Lake, Martha acts very brave and rescues Beetle and Thorn from it once they fall in along with the half wolf and Spring. She still blames herself for not rescuing Spring. When Lucky comes up with the Four Paws system, she is one of the first to agree and explain it to the other dogs.
- As the dogs walked along the gravel trail, Mickey nudged Martha on the flank. Martha replied saying she could have never imagined. She then talked about how her longpaws would lock her in the back of their loudcage. Dart said that was scary but Martha said she got used to it. Lucky said he couldn't bear to be on a leash all the time and Martha agreed.
- When Storm wanted to fight the Fierce Dogs Martha told her she was a silly pup and should listen to the others. When Whine muttered on how Storm should go to the Fierce Dogs, Storm attacked him. Martha jumped in front of her so she wouldn't hurt him. Storm then barked at Martha and told her how dare you. Then she attacked Martha. She went under Martha's belly, turned around and sprang on Martha's back. Then Storm snapped at Martha's ears. Martha tried to shake Storm off but she kept nipping her. Martha then bucked and threw Storm off. Storm slunk pass Maratha and sat by Lucky. Lucky scolded her saying Martha is like her Mother-Dog.When the dogs camped in the abandoned Food House, Mickey tried to comfort Martha by licking her ear. Martha said she absolutely agreed since the path was the opposite Storm wanted to take. Martha found a box. She opened it and small, white balls scattered on the ground. Martha then licked a couple up and the rest of the dogs followed. Martha is later apologized to by Storm in the morning to find out what the longpaws are up to. Martha is included in the patrol.
- Storm of Dogs
- Moon, Bella, Mickey, Sunshine, Lucky, Sweet, and Martha head out to the longpaw town. As the patrol goes over a narrow path of rocks, Martha is seen walking slowly at the back, helping Sunshine over the steeper boulders. Upon arriving in the city, the dogs see many orange longpaws working in loudcages, which excites Sunshine. The little dog runs onto the street towards them, but Mickey blocks her, and Martha springs forward to help him. She places a paw in front of the Omega and soothes that they don't know yet if the longpaws are friendly.
- When the patrol gets back the the rest of the Pack and explains what they found out, Moon voices that she thinks they are too close to the longpaws and aren't safe. Martha disagrees, saying that she doesn't think the longpaws would come for the dogs, and she points out that there are no longpaw houses near their camp for them to shelter. Mickey also disagrees with the water-dog, but Sweet decides that the Pack will stay put. The Alpha looks at Martha and Mickey and tells them that the cliffs and valley belong to the dogs.
- During Lucky's Beta Ceremony, the dogs of the Wild Pack form a circle around Lucky, each with offerings between their forepaws. Lucky looks at their reassuring faces, and his gaze passes over Martha. The large black dog is the second to give Lucky a gift, and she lays a bright-yellow stone in front of him. He recognizes it as one of the pebbles from the bank of the pond, and guesses that she went to collect it with Sunshine, who is proudly clutching a white water stone in her mouth. Martha explains in her deep, gentle voice that this stone was particularly clear and smooth, and that she has brought it to him so that as the hard edges of the bank softens, he will smooth over the cracks and divisions in the Pack to keep them united as one. The former Leashed Dog touches Lucky's nose and her warm, reassuring company makes him remember his Mother-Dog.
- Shortly after, Lucky has a dream that the Fierce Dog deputies Mace and Dagger are terrorizing the former Leashed Dogs and forcing them to walk. Mickey is seen leaning against Martha for support, and even the great black dog can hardly walk.
- Later, when the dogs are worried about another Growl and discuss whether they should move camp. The Former Leashed Dogs worry about the longpaws too, and although most of the Wild Pack disagrees with helping them, Lucky states that they should warn the longpaws. Upon him saying this, Martha pads to his side, and the other former Leashed Dogs are also affected by his words. Sweet allows them to, and when she asks who is going with Lucky to warn the longpaws, Martha is the first to say that she will. Sweet escorts the patrol to the edge of the cliff, and Bella and Martha lead the way down from there.
- Once the dogs reach the longpaw town, they ponder over how to make the longpaws leave. All the dogs offer ideas, and Martha suggests leaning against their legs and pushing them away from the Endless Lake. Lucky agrees with all their ideas and he tells the dogs to do everything they can to let the longpaws know they are in danger, without getting captured. The dogs start yipping and prancing, and the longpaws first look amused, but when Bella and Lucky start howling they tense. Martha and Mickey run to two longpaws, but they back away defensively. Suddenly, Martha swivels her head toward the lake and asks what the noise is, and Mickey exclaims that the Endless Lake is pulling away from its bank.
- The dogs start to run, but Mickey notices a longpaw trapped in a pit and wants to help him. The dogs try to drag the longpaw out with a piece of wood, but amid their efforts the Growl starts, causing the dogs to drop the wood and get scared; Martha is seen trembling. Mickey is still trying to lower another piece of wood into the pit to save the longpaw, and Lucky and Martha come to help him. With the powerful water-dog, they are able to lift the plank over the edge of the pit. Loudbirds fly over the town but seem to forget the longpaw, and Lucky worries that they won't make it.. However, Martha says that the Lake-Dog is coming, but she will wait until the dogs have left. The black dog explains that she is the River-Dog's litter-sister, and she sent her thoughts to the Spirit Dog and knows she listened. Lucky is unsure if he believes Martha, but her words reassure him and he helps Mickey angle the stick while Martha lowers it as far as she can. They manage to save the longpaw and start the journey back to camp.
- However, the path to the Pack is ruined by the Growl, so the dogs have to run along the bank and risk the Lake-Dog's wrath. Lucky turns to glance at the others, and he sees Martha's lips are moving. The Beta wonders if she is sending her thoughts to the Lake-Dog and begging her to be merciful. From there, the patrol runs around the cliffs, and Martha carries Sunshine by her scruff over the rock ridge. Lucky thinks they are lucky that Martha is with them. The growl soon ends and the dogs make it back to camp, but find that the Pack isn't there. In grief, Sunshine, Mickey, Snap, and Bella start whining, then Martha throws back her head and howls. However, Daisy points out that she can hear something, and the dogs of the patrol pick up the sounds of their Packmates. Martha thumps her tail and yelps that she can hear Storm. The dogs follow the voices of their Pack and find them trapped under the roots of a fallen tree. Sweet explains how they sheltered underneath it when the trees began to fall during the growl, but the tree rolled over and trapped them. The dogs from the patrol kick away dirt from under the tree, and Lucky, Bella, and Martha clear a path for their Packmates to escape through.
- After the Pack is freed, Sweet and Lucky begin talking about Blade and the Storm of Dogs, but the rest of the dogs overhear and wonder what the Fierce Dog leader has to do with the Growl. Whine accuses the Alpha and Beta of keeping secrets from the Pack, which causes Sweet to glare at the little dog, who then hides between Bruno and Martha. Sweet explains Lucky's dreams that warn of a battle between Packs, but Martha questions if they are actually real. Sweet says that she thinks it is, and she and Lucky continue that Blade wants to kill Storm. Whine suggests that they give Storm over to the Fierce Dog leader, but Martha says that they can't even consider handing Storm over. She pads to her foster-daughter's side and goes on that the young dog has always shown her dedication to the Pack, even fighting her way back to them when Blade captured them. The water-dog adds that Storm fought her brother fairly in the Trial of Rage, proving hat she can rise above her former Pack. Martha finishes that they are fortunate to have her, and the Fierce Dog presses against the black dog, burying her muzzle into her fur.
- Whine still insists on using the Four Paws rule to vote Storm out of the Pack, and Sweet allows him to conduct the vote. After Dart, then Bruno, vote in agreement, Lucky hurries to Storm's side and presses close to her so that the young dog is flanked by him and Martha. The Beta and the thick-furred Newfoundland lower their head and raise their haunches, and the latter curls her top lip to reveal her teeth. The two adult dogs glare at the rest of the Pack, challenging them that if they want to vote Storm out of the Pack, they will have to go through them. After a while of silence, in which no other dogs vote 'yes', Sweet orders the vote to end, which causes Martha to bark in approval. Afterwards, the dogs make a plan to defeat Blade and the Fierce Dogs, and Whine leaves the Pack angrily.
- The Pack decides to go find Twitch's Pack and ask for help, and on the journey there, Martha and Bruno take turns carrying Sunshine over the sodden path by the Endless Lake. Eventually, they reach a part of the river near Twitch's new Pack, and when Sweet calls for them to stop and make a camp, Martha sets Sunshine down. As the Pack rests, Beetle and Thorn show Sweet and Lucky how the River-Dog has frozen over. Martha joins them on the riverbank and gingerly taps the ice, recoiling with a small whine. Beetle asks her if the River-Dog is okay or hurt, and Martha soothes that the Spirit Dog is just sleeping, but her whiskers flex uneasily at the sight of the frozen river. Moon calls her pups back, leaving Sweet, Lucky, and Martha alone. The Beta notices that Martha still looks worried, and he reassures his friend that the River-Dog will be okay. He describes how in the city, ponds in the park would also sometimes freeze over during Ice Wind, but would spring back to life in Tree Flower. The black dog turns to him and agrees, but explains that she feels sad, as if the River-Dog died and won't ever come back. Martha draws her gaze away and shakes her fur coat, noting that she is just being silly, then turns and pads away on the riverbank. She sinks down onto her belly and licks her paws while staring over the frozen water. Lucky murmurs that he should go to his Packmate, but Sweet tells him to not do that now, as the hunting patrol has returned.
- After eating, the dogs set out along the river again, and soon find Twitch's Pack. Lucky and Sweet request for help against Blade, and when the other Pack eventually agrees, the Wild Pack howls happily, and Storm turns to Martha with glittering eyes.
- Shortly after, when Lucky goes to challenge Blade for a fight with Storm, he thinks of his Pack, including good-hearted Martha. Blade agrees to the conditions, and as Lucky gets back to the Pack, it starts to snow. Storm, Beetle, and Thorn, all of whom had never seen snow before, find it different but are worried, yet Moon soothes them that it is just snow. Storm still questions if the Sky-Dogs are angry, but Martha rises and gathers Storm and Thorn toward her, repeating that it is just snow, and telling them that it won't hurt. Daisy asks when the snow will melt, and after Moon answers, she settles beside Martha's side, as all the dogs gaze at the falling snow.
- After the Wild Pack uses a giantfur to ambush the Fierce Dogs and Lucky comes back with the news, Storm nudges her way between Martha and Moon and hopes that Blade died in agony. Sweet announces to her Pack and Twitch's Pack that they will go now to fight the Fierce Dogs, and she warns them to be careful of the ice, as it could crack and cause the dog to fall in the freezing water. The Alpha adds that she doesn't even think Martha would last long down there, and the black water-dog cocks her head in acknowledgement. Storm requests to be in the front line of the battle, but Sweet and Lucky tell her she can't, which upsets the young dog. Martha pads over to her and rests her head on the Fierce Dog's shoulder, comforting her that it is safer in the back. Storm protests that she wants to fight for her Pack, but Martha soothes that her time will come. Storm buries her head against the black dog's thick coat, and Lucky thinks that it is as if no bitterness had ever developed between the two. He notices Martha's affection, similar to a Mother-Dog's, and the trust in Storm's face.
- During the fight of the Storm of Dogs, Storm suddenly races along the waterfront, and Lucky sees the Wild Pack's old Alpha and two Fierce Dogs converge on Martha at the edge of the frozen river. They snap and wrench at her flanks and she stumbles, struggling to keep her footing. Clumps of her long black fur sink onto the bloodstained sludge, and one of the Fierce Dogs snarl to bring her down. The half wolf smashes his shoulder into the water-dog's side while the two Fierce Dogs maul her flanks. Martha is unable to defend herself, and when one of her hind legs collapses behind her, the Fierce Dogs bark in triumph. Storm howls for them to get away from her, and she springs onto the dog-wolf's back, sinking her teeth into his neck hard. The half wolf shakes himself free, then flees with the other two Fierce Dogs. Storm shrieks that she will kill him, but Lucky murmurs that Martha is in trouble.
- The great black dog has slumped on to her belly and is wheezing badly. The deep bites in her flanks bleed freely, and she sinks her head between her forepaws, resting it on the earth. A calmness seems to come over the water-dog, and her breathing eases. Martha's eyes then meet Lucky's, and her ears prick up. She worries about Storm's whereabouts, and the Fierce Dog, her eyes full of fear crouches in the snow. She puts her muzzle close to Martha's face and she says she is there. The great black dog licks her foster-daughter's whiskers and murmurs in her deep, soothing voice that Storm has grown up to be so strong and courageous. To Lucky, Storm seems to turn into the pup Lick, yearning for love, and replies that it's only because Martha believed in her. Martha's eyes sparkle, and she tells the young dog to continue to be loyal, strong, and kind. Storm says that she learned that from Martha. The former continues that Martha has always been like a Mother-Dog to her, and she needs her there. The black dog responds that she doesn't need reminding, as the strength and kindness are in her. Martha's eyes begin to close, and Lucky quivers with sadness, while panic crosses Storm's face. The latter nudges the great dog with her nose, and Martha opens her eyes slowly. She lightly says that she will be with the River-Dog now, and will be free. Martha's last words are that she will always watch over Storm and the rest of the Pack, before her tail gives a jerk and settles on the snow. The great dog's eyes fall shut for the last time.
- Storm howls that it is all Blade's fault and calls out to the Fierce Dog leader to fight her. The latter saunters along the riverbank, ignoring Martha's prone body, and accepts Storm's challenge, mocking the young dog. Storm says it is is time to pay for what the Fierce Dog Alpha has done to her littermates, her Mother-Dog, Martha, and the other dogs she killed. The two dogs begin fighting, but during their one-on-one fight, the dog-wolf comes and leaps onto Storm's back, preparing to bite down on her throat. Lucky is horrified, afraid that the battle between Blade and Storm would be cut short by a cowardly attack, and he worries that Martha and Splash would have died for nothing. The Beta then realizes that it is his duty to save Storm, and he attacks the Wild Pack's old Alpha. During Lucky and the dog-wolf's fight, the former Alpha dies, while Blade drowns in her skirmish with Storm.
- With the Wild Pack and Twitch's Pack having won the Storm of Dogs, the united forces gather in the Wild Dog's camp. Sweet thanks Twitch for his Pack's help and acknowledges their sacrifices and Splash's lost life. Twitch replies that he was honored to fight alongside the Alpha, and says that they will grieve for his Pack's lost Beta, as well as Martha, who fought bravely to the last. Storm whimpers and nuzzles against Lucky, and the golden-furred dog feels sadness as he thinks of his deceased friend. He reminds himself that she is now safe with the River-Dog and remembers her quiet determination to belong, in the early days after the Big Growl, when the Leashed Dogs left the city with Lucky. The Beta reflects on who she at first seemed so serious and restrained, but all that had changed when she first saw the river; the water-dog had bounded in with so much excitement and began swimming. Lucky recalls how she had always felt at home in the water.
- Twitch's Pack and the Wild Pack combine as one, then a hunting patrol sets out to find prey. After the Pack eats, they have a Great Howl, during which Lucky sees the deceased dogs he has known. Martha is seen last, diving and bowing in the long grass, spinning and running playfully. She seems to follow the other dogs, then pauses and waits for a black-and-tan pup. The pup, Wiggle, wags his tail furiously when he sees Martha, and the latter greets the pup with an affectionate lick. The two then follow the rest of the dogs together, running with the Spirit Dogs. Twitch points out a beam of light coming from the striped longpaw building, and Storm says that it is Martha, watching over the Pack like she said she would. Lucky isn't sure if this is true, but he knows that whatever happens, Martha will keep her promise and will always watch over Storm and the Pack.
In the Gathering Darkness arc
- Storm remembers that Martha used to tell her, Grunt, and Wiggle stories, and all about the Spirit-Dogs. She recalls how they didn't know anything because their Mother-Dog died before she could tell them, but that Martha was her Mother-Dog too. Although Lucky and Mickey had helped raised her, Martha was the one who came closest to replacing her lost Mother-Dog. Storm misses Martha, and thinks that when she died, it had been like losing her Mother-Dog for a second time.
- That night, Storm has a dream where she asks Martha what they will do today, while she excitedly leaps around Martha's legs while nipping at her fur. She asks to do something fun, and suggests teaching her how to swim. Storm is so tiny next to Martha, and she realizes that she is still Lick. Storm hops to her paws and pants eagerly as Martha licks her face, and she asks where Wiggle and Grunt are. Martha gives a soft, gruff laugh and wrinkles her muzzle, telling her to wait, but her head suddenly jerks up, and her eyes narrow. The large dog sniffs the breeze and Storm presses close to her foster-mother's flank, feeling her fur bristle. Darkness shifts at the edge of the trees, and Storm realizes that something is terrible, and she asks Martha what iit is. Martha tells her to be quiet and wait, but Storm frets that it is Blade, and she asks Martha what they will do. The large black dog turns and dips her head to Storm's, and murmurs that she doesn't know what to do, as here is no danger out there. Storm begins to object, but Martha promises that there is no danger out in the forest. She licks Storm's ear, and tells the pup that the darkness is in her.
- She is mostly swamped for a longing for Martha, and greatly misses her foster-mother. She remembers how when Martha had been alive, there was always at least one dog who was happy to welcome Storm and let her cuddle against her huge flank and confide her hopes, worries, and miseries. Storm suddenly remembers her dream from the night before, and Martha's kind eyes fill her vision, her warm, gruff voice that had always been full of comfort telling her that there is darkness within her. Storm speaks to Lucky, and when he says that there is no need to worry about dreams, Storm wants to blurt out that Martha said something terrible. However, she can't bring herself to say it and realizes that she is ashamed to share what the dream-Martha had said.
- Martha's memento from her longpaws was a red square cloth.
- Unnamed littermates: Status Unknown
- "Come on, Sunshine. I know it's perfect here, but we'll find somewhere else that's just as good."
- —Martha to Sunshine The Empty City, page 245
- "But that would be true whether the pups were here or not. They're so small. They could grow up to be kind and brave. Who are we to brand them 'bad' dogs when they've barely had a chance in life? They're just pups; we should remember that. And Lucky deserves our trust. He has brought Mickey back to us. We should be grateful that he's here after how he was forced to leave... Things have changed since the Big Growl, and we're all just trying to figure out how best to survive - it's like Mickey said, we need to stick together. If danger does come to the camp, we can beat it as a Pack, and Lucky knows better than any dog how to defend himself."
- —Martha Darkness Falls, pages 175-176
- "Storm's right: We're all hungry. It's the hunger and cold that makes us snap at each other."
- —Martha to Moon and Bella The Endless Lake (book), page 49
- "This stone was particularly clear and smooth. I bring you this gift so that, as the River-Dog softens the hard edges of the bank, you will smooth over the cracks and divisions in the Pack to keep us working as one."
- —Martha to Lucky in his Beta Ceremony Storm of Dogs (book), page chapter 4
- "They're just stories, aren't they? Tales that Mother-Dogs tell their pups to stop them from being naughty. 'Don't fight, pups, the Spirit Dogs are watching. You don't want to bring on the Storm of Dogs.' That sort of thing."
- —Martha about the Storm of Dogs Storm of Dogs (book), page chapter 12
- "I know, it's only... I can't help feeling sad. As though she died and will never come back [...] I'm just being silly. Tired, I expect."
- —Martha to Lucky and Sweet about the frozen River-Dog Storm of Dogs (book), page chapter 15
- Martha: "It's okay, young dog. You're safer back here."
- Storm: "But I don't want to be safe – I want to fight for my Pack, like everyone else."
- Storm of Dogs, page chapter 20
- "Lucky watched as Storm buried her head against Martha's thick black coat. It was as though no bitterness had ever developed between the two dogs. He noticed the water-dog's gentle affection, so like that of a Mother-Dog, and the trust in Storm's dark face."
- —Lucky watching Storm and Martha Storm of Dogs (book), page chapter 20
- Martha: "Where's Storm? Is she okay?"
- Storm: "I'm here."
- Storm of Dogs, page chapter 21
- "We shall grieve for our lost Beta, and also for Martha, who fought so bravely to the last."
- —Twitch to Sweet after the Storm of Dogs Storm of Dogs (book), page chapter 23
- "A great sadness burned in [Lucky's] chest as he thought of the water-dog. She's safe now with River-Dog, he reminded himself. He remembered Martha's quiet determination to belong, in the early days after the Big Growl, when he and the Leashed Dogs left the city. At first, she had seemed so serious and restrained, but all that had changed when she'd first set eyes on the river. She had bounded in with so much excitement, just like a pup, paddling her webbed paws. She had always felt at home in the water—close to the River-Dog."
- —Lucky thinking about Martha after her death Storm of Dogs (book), page chapter 23
- "Whatever happens, I know Martha will always keep her promise—she will always watch over Storm and our Pack."
- —Lucky thinking about Martha Storm of Dogs (book), page chapter 23
- "I miss Martha.... when she died, it was like losing my Mother-Dog for a second time."
- —Storm thinking about Martha A Pack Divided, page chapter 2
- "With a suddenness that took her breath away, she was swamped by longing for Martha. In that moment she missed her foster-mother so badly, she wanted to howl to the sky all alone. When Martha had been alive, there had always been at least one dog who was happy to welcome her, to let Storm cuddle against her huge flank and confide her hopes and worries and miseries."
- —Storm thinking about Martha A Pack Divided, page chapter 5
References and Citations
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Revealed in The Final Battle, page 310
- ↑ Revealed in The Empty City, page 87
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Revealed in The Empty City, page 80
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Revealed in A Hidden Enemy, page 14
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Revealed in The Empty City, page 89
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Revealed in The Broken Path, chapter 3
- ↑ Revealed in Storm of Dogs, page 247
- ↑ Revealed in A Hidden Enemy, page 242
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Revealed in The Empty City, page 162
- ↑ Revealed in The Empty City, page 90
- ↑ Revealed in A Hidden Enemy Pack List
- ↑ Revealed in The Empty City, page 121
- ↑ Revealed in The Empty City, page 163
- ↑ Revealed in The Endless Lake, page 219
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Revealed in Darkness Falls, page 32
- ↑ Revealed in Darkness Falls, page 49
- ↑ Revealed in A Pack Divided, chapter 3
- ↑ Revealed in Darkness Falls, page 175
- ↑ Revealed in Darkness Falls, page 248
- ↑ Revealed in The Endless Lake, page 33
- ↑ Revealed in The Empty City, page 141
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 Revealed in Darkness Falls, page 176
- ↑ Revealed in Storm of Dogs, page 77
- ↑ Revealed in Darkness Falls, page 287